education, engendering critical awareness and becoming a transformative intellectual seem to be unattainable. No matter how motivated and open a teacher is, definitely such structural constraints affect teacher performance negatively. Some teachers suggested that the institutions have to be re-organized to allow for more diversity, flexibility and openness towards other modes of teaching and learning.
This study was carried out to examine whether Iranian language teachers are aware of principles and premises of critical pedagogy. Current study, also, intended to scrutinize the main barriers of applying CP principles in schools from teachers᾽ points of view. In this chapter, first, design of the study is explained. Second, participants of the study are described. Then, used instruments are dealt with in detail. Next, the statistical analysis is described, which is followed by a presentation of the procedure of the study.
3.2 design of the study
The design of a study primarily depends on the research questions that the study addresses. The main questions of the present study can be characterized as either quantitative-oriented questions, qualitative ones, or mixed ones. Therefore, a mixed design method was used. Mixed methods include both qualitative and quantitative features in the design, data collection, and analysis. In such a design qualitative and quantitative data collection can occur in parallel form or sequential form. The mixed methods can also involve the conversion of qualitative data to a quantitative form or vice versa. In this study, the data were collected sequentially. For question one, quantitative data and data analysis methods were used, while qualitative data and corresponding analysis methods were used to address the second type of questions (Question number two).
The sampling procedure used in the study was combination of Multi-Stage and random Sampling. 100 participants of this study were selected randomly from among all language teachers in Lorestan and Kuhgiluieh & Boyerahmad provinces. All the participants were recruited from language teachers at high schools. They were BA holders and full time teachers. They were from different genders and they have been teaching English for at least 4 years. The sample for the second question (qualitative one) was selected from among the participants of the first questions (those who answered the first question positively). In the qualitative studies, the number of participants depends on data saturation point. When no new information is obtained from the interviewees, interviewing is terminated. In this study having interviewed ten participants, data saturation was obtained.
In this study two kinds of instruments were used. First, based on review of literature on CP, a questionnaire consisted of 41 items was constructed. Based on content analysis, these 41 items were divided into 7 factors. Then this instrument, through a pilot study, was administered to a representative sample. Then it was validated through confirmatory factor analysis and the numbers of items were reduced to 30 items. First factor which was named “attention to social and cultural issuesˮ consisted of 9 items (items 1 to 9 of the questionnaire). Second factor under the title of “language and ideologyˮ had 4 items (items 10 to 13 of the questionnaire). Third factor which was named “ethical issues and educational justiceˮ consisted of 4 items (items 14 to 18 of the questionnaire). Fourth factor which was titled “attention to needs and differences of the studentsˮ had, again, 4 items (items 18 to 21 of the questionnaire). Fifth factor under the title of “use of students comment in language teachingˮ had 3 items (items 22 to 24 of the questionnaire). Sixth factor which was named “attention to first languageˮ consisted of 3 items (items 25 to 27 of the questionnaire). The seventh factor which was titled “creative thinkingˮ had 3 items (items 28 to 30 of the questionnaire).The final version of questionnaire was distributed among a representative sample of population. Another instrument was an interview checklist. It consisted of a set of questions which invited the participants to express their attitudes toward critical pedagogy, the barriers of application of CP, and the educational implications.
3.5 Data analysis
In order to analyze data, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. To develop the inventory, confirmatory factor analysis was run. This is a technique to reduce the number of variables (confirmatory factor analysis principle component). Also, it is used to estimate the construct validity of a questionnaire. Through factor analysis, the highly correlated items are kept and those with less correlation coefficient (in this case less than .4) will be deleted. Principle component is more conservative. That is, through this method more items are kept. In order to estimate the internal consistency of the instrument cronbach alpha coefficient was used (α=.82). This is an acceptable estimate. In analyzing the data for question 1, descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation, and frequency was estimated. Also, a one-sample t-test was run to see whether the mean of sample and population are different or not. As the nature of second question was totally different from the first one, qualitative approaches were used to analyze data in the second question. In this study grounded theory was the best approach. Theory generation in qualitative data can be emergent, and grounded theory is an important method of theory generation. It is more inductive than content analysis, as the theories emerge from, rather than exist before, the data. Grounded theory starts with data, which are then analyzed and reviewed to enable the theory to be generated from them; it is rooted in the data and little else. Here the theory derives from the data – it is grounded in the data and emerges from it.
3.6 Procedure of the study
As the design of this study was a mixed one, specific procedures were needed. This study was a kind of multi-phase study. At the first phase, based on the review of related literature, the needed questionnaire was developed and then a representative sample of population was selected. In the next phase, the questionnaires were administered to the participants, either directly or through some colleagues and some were e-mailed to them. After collecting questionnaires, they were analyzed through appropriate statistical procedures. Then, the qualitative data needed for the second question were gathered through face to face in-depth interview. The participants were informed of the purpose of the research and their consent was obtained. The participants᾽ permission, also, was obtained to audiotape each interview for purposes of qualitative analysis using grounded theory. The interviews were conducted in both unstructured and semi-structured manner. When no new information was gathered from last three interviewees, data saturation was achieved. The interviewed data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative technique of grounded theory.
Results and Discussions
The aim of this study was to see whether Iranian language teachers are familiar with CP and its components. This study, also, intended to explore the main barriers of applying CP principles in schools from teachers’ points of view. In order to find answers to above questions, first, a self-developed questionnaire was administered to 100 English language teachers and then a representative sample of participants were interviewed. It this chapter, at first, the results of the study consisting of descriptive and inferential statistics and qualitative results are introduced. Then the results for each question will be discussed.
4.2 Quantitative resultsThe quantitative data were collected and analyzed to answer the first question of the study. They include descriptive and inferential statistics which are shown in the following parts of the study.
4.2.1 Results of inventory development
Based on content analysis, 41 items of the first version of inventory were divided into 7 factors. In order to be sure that data have normal distribution and we are on the safe ground to run factor analysis, KMO and Bartlett’s test was used. The results indicated that the data did not violate the assumptions of factor analysis. Then, confirmatory factor analysis was run. The items with factor loading of less than .4 were deleted. The 41 item-inventory is shown in table 4.1.
41 item-inventory of critical pedagogy
1. Social and cultural issues 1. Learning is a social process and it takes place as a result of social interaction.
2. Whatever is said in the classroom should help improvement of society.
3. Students must realize their knowledge in the society.
4. School is an appropriate place for discussing social problems and issues.
5. Language is an ideology, therefore, teaching a language is teaching a new ideology.
6. In writing language course books, local values, beliefs, and interests must be taken into account.
7. There is a relationship between language, power, and ideology.
8. Educational subjects can be domesticated.
9. in test preparation, their effects and consequences on individual’s lives, and on educational,
social and political contexts must be taken into account.
2. Language and ideology 10. Decisions about educational system are made by executive directors in a top-down process.
11. Teacher must be aware of hidden curriculum and ideologies hidden in contents of educational
12. Language may lead to a change in individuals᾽ culture and beliefs.
13. Education is a political action and may lead to violation of the rights of some particular group
14*. Language learning is a mental process and has no relation to social and political structures.
3. Ethical issues and 15. Teaching method in the classroom may lead to creation and reinforcement of social inequalities
educational justice 16. Gender differences may causes differences in language learners’ way of learning.
17. Considering gender differences in language teaching is an essential issue.
18. There should be relation between students᾽ abilities and learning styles and teacher’s teaching
methods and techniques.
19*. In second language learning and teaching, minority groups should not be ignored.
4. Students᾽ needs and 20. Course book contents must be based on the analysis of students needs.
differences 21. Teachers teaching method must be compatible with students᾽ interests.
22. Learning attitudes and styles of male and female students are different.
23. If students are not satisfied with contents and way of teaching, teacher must revise them.